Optimisation scripts do not know that the script is not a static resource but changes based on configuration. The 10 minutes timeframe has been chosen because it means it's loaded only once per visit. If there is another visit, then it's good that the visitor gets a new version.
It is perfectly acceptable that the visitor needs to fetch the script once per visit, even if they visit multiple times a week. It is still a minuscule part of their download traffic. For consecutive page loads, it is served from the browser cache.
The reasons for 10-minutes cache are that the script is updated whenever popup rules change so that's the time it can take for campaigns the update. Also, in terms of practical page load speeds, 10 minutes vs. 24h doesn't make a huge difference, basically the script is loaded once per visit because most visits last less than 10 minutes.